Patient-centered care concerns the relationship between the patient and their health providers. Institute of Medicine (IOM) define patient-centered care as Providing care that is respectful of, and responsive to, individual patient preferences, needs and values, and ensuring that patient values guide all clinical decisions. In our previous articles, we explain Hospital information system- HISTree, Improve Doctor-Patient relationship, Role of a nurse in Hospitals, radiology in healthcare, Pacs in healthcare etc. Here we are going to explain Patient-centered care definition, principles etc in detail.
As we know, there is no one type of patient in hospitals, each and everyone needs special treatment/diagnosis as per their disease or problem. By keeping their condition in mind each individual patient got care as necessary like what type of meal is good for him/her, environmental conditions etc.
Principle of Patient-centered Care:
For any organisation, patient satisfaction is a top most priority because if the patient is not satisfied no one can trust specific organisation health care system. To measure the patient experience of care, picker institute conducts telephonic interviews of patients and get feedback about care. After this survey, they find out the important dimensions of the patient-centred care. Following of dimensions/principles of patient care are:
(i) Patient wants Coordination and Integration of Care:
Whenever patient suffers from any disease he/she feel susceptible and weak, at that moment they want proper coordination of care which enhances their physical strength. The patient says that the following three areas explained below can reduce the feeling of susceptibility.
- Front Line Patient care coordination
- Clinical care coordination
- Ancillary & support services coordination
This principle states that patient-centred health care requires transparency between patients, hospitals & healthcare providers. Nowadays in few cases, providers are not honest to their patient which will create fear in the mind of the patient. That’s why it is recommended that provider should be honest and upfront with information so patients can make decisions. One way MSHA supports transparency is by posting its quality & safety performance on its website.
(iii) Patient wants proper information and communication:
Patients feel that sometimes they are not getting proper information regarding his/her condition/prognosis. Due to this fear they always remain in worries and not recover quickly as per given time. To overcome this, healthcare providers have to focus on following things:
- Provide information on procedure of care
- Provide information on clinical status, prognosis & progress
(iv) Patient wants physical comfort & Emotional support:
Every patient wants proper physical comfort and emotional support at the time of treatment. The level of physical comfort has a significant impact on their experience. For physical comfort & emotional support, providers have to take care of following things:
- Hospital Surrounding & Environment
- Pain management
- Assistance with daily live needs
- Alleviate anxiety of patients over treatment & prognosis
- Alleviate anxiety of patients over financial impact of illness
(v) Patient wants involvement of family & friends:
The patient says family and friends play a crucial role in their lives, provide emotional & mental support. After looking advice healthcare provider to take care & to provide various facilities to their family and friends. Following are:
- Provide accommodations for family members & friends
- Involve close friends and members in decision-making
- Support family members as caregivers
(vi) Respect patient values and preferences:
This principle states that always involve patients in decision making, considering they are individuals with their own unique preferences and values. Always treat them with sensitivity, dignity and respect their cultural/ religious values & autonomy.
(vii) Access to care:
The patient wants to know that they can get care or not whenever they want. They want sufficient ambulatory care at the time of emergency. The following areas important for the patient are:
- Transport availability
- Appointment scheduling
- Easy access to hospital, clinic location
- Easy access to specialist or specialist officer in case of emergency
- Appointment availability
- Clear instructions needed on why and where to get referred
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