Health care Definition:
Health care is an organised way of medical care concerned with the maintenance of the health of the whole body. It is delivered by the healthcare providers or professionals in various fields includes a pharmacy, nursing, medicine, dentistry, psychology, physicians etc. Day by day healthcare facilities got improved into various corners of the world and meets the gaming technology. Healthcare is mainly influenced by the social, economic conditions & health policies of the place and varies across different countries, individuals, groups etc.
In few countries to meet the health needs of the people, various healthcare systems are established. According to World Health Organization, health care system requires a well-trained and adequately paid workforce, deliver quality medicines and technologies etc.
Types of Healthcare:
Every individual has required different care depending upon their health problem like some require normal care and some require extra special care. So on the basis of patient condition healthcare divides into various types. Following types of healthcare are explained below:
(i) Primary Healthcare:
Primary health care mainly focuses on health equity producing social policy beyond the traditional healthcare system. Its main aim is to provide local care to a patient because professionals related to primary care are normal generalists, deals with a broad range of psychological, physical and social problems etc rather than specialists in any particular disease area. Primary care services rapidly increasing in both the developed and developing countries depending upon the increasing number of adults at greater risk of chronic noncommunicable disease like diabetes, asthma, back pain, hypertension, anxiety, depression etc.
To achieve the ultimate goals of primary health care., WHO has described five elements to achieve this goal. Following are:
- Stakeholder participation increased.
- Integrate health into all sectors.
- According to people need & expectation organizing healthy services.
- Pursuing collaborative models of policy dialogue.
(ii) Secondary Healthcare:
This healthcare is provided by the medical specialists and other health problems who do not have direct contact with a patient like urologists, dermatologists, cardiologists etc. According to National health system policy, the patient required primary care professionals referral to proceed further for secondary care. Depends on countries to countries, the patient cannot directly take secondary care because sometimes health system imposed a restriction of referral on a patient in terms of payment.
The systems come under this category is known as District Health system and County Health system.
(a) District Health system : This system mainly focus on child health and maternity care. People population of this system is about 25000 to 50000 and includes various healthcare centres and district hospitals. Healthcare centres receive referrals from various primary health care and is remain open for 24 hours every day. District hospitals include emergency services, neonatal care, comprehensive emergency obstetric etc and is remain open for 24 hours every day.
(b) County Health system: Into this system, hospitals receive referrals from the District & community health systems. County hospital provides gynecologic services, general medicine, obstetrics, general surgery etc and is remain open for 24 hours every day.
(iii) Tertiary Healthcare:
This type of healthcare is known as specialized consultative healthcare usually for inpatients and on referral from primary and secondary healthcare for advanced medical investigation and treatment. following examples of tertiary care services are plastic surgery, burn treatment, cardiac surgery, cancer management, neurosurgery, complex medical and surgical interventions etc.
The main provider of tertiary care is national Health system consist of Regional hospitals and National Hospital. Regional hospitals receive a reference from various county hospitals and serves as training sites complementary to the National referral hospital. It also provides additional care services and remains open for 24 hours every day.
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